Skip All MenusSkip First Menu
Spacer Image Spacer Image

You are not logged-in. Log-in here

Spacer Spacer Image
Welcome & Instructions
About the Tutorial for the TCPS
Introducing the TCPS
Section 1: Ethics Review
Section 2: Free and Informed Consent
Section 3: Privacy and Confidentiality
Section 4: Conflict of Interest
Section 5: Inclusion in Research
Section Overview
Ethics Context
Distribution of Benefits
Research Involving Women
Research Involving Those Who Are Incompetent to Consent for Themselves
Case Studies
Progress Check
PRE Web Site
Spacer Image
Back Forward Tutorial Help Save Location

Tutorial: Ethical Conduct of Research involving Humans: Section 5: Inclusion in Research

Distribution of Benefits

Historically, women, Native people, minority groups, the elderly and individuals such as children who were unable to give consent for themselves have been excluded from research. Reasons for exclusion from research have varied. In some instances, individuals or groups have been excluded directly because differences in age, gender, biological factors, or ethnic and cultural factors may impact upon the outcome of the research. For example, frail, elderly individuals have been excluded from certain research because they are unable to complete all of the tests involved in the study or because of the risk of drug-related complications. In other instances, certain groups have been excluded indirectly because individuals with the condition of interest rarely meet the inclusion criteria. For example, women usually develop heart disease later in life than men do, and consequently a study with an age criterion suitable for men might exclude women. There also have been times when barriers of communication, understanding, access, time or financial expense have meant that an individual or group is excluded from research. For example, researchers who develop recruitment posters and information and consent materials in English only are likely to exclude many members of Canadian society.

Under-inclusion of such groups has denied them access to the benefits of research. In order to contribute to the fair distribution of benefits to individuals and groups, the TCPS requires that researchers should not exclude a particular group of individuals, unless there is a valid reason for doing so.

Recommended reading
TCPS logo

>> Inclusion in Research

>> Article 5.1

Back Forward Mark as Completed Tutorial Help Save Location

Spacer Image


Spacer Image
Last Modified: 2009-09-04 Top of Page Important Notices